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Find it on Scholar. Request removal from index. Revision history. This entry has no external links. Add one. Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server Configure custom proxy use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy. Configure custom resolver. Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam ed.

Understanding Asian Philosophy. Alexus McLeod - - Bloomsbury Academic. Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. Oliver Leaman ed. Nothingness in Asian Philosophy. Morals and Society in Asian Philosophy. Brian Carr ed. Frank J. Many Asian and African philosophies have experienced a struggle for acceptance. And even this recognition is limited by selectivity and philosophical fashion centered in Western academia and perpetuated by Western educated eastern intellectuals.

This paper attempts to show how regional philosophy in general and Southeast Asian philosophy in particular can be constructed and accepted.

Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy

These regional self-constructed philosophies can serve to correct the legacy of the racism and bigotry of the tradition. Key Words: minor traditions of philosophy; regional philosophy; Southeast Asian philosophy. Can such a philosopher be still a lover of wisdom? In fact, some Western philosophers did adopt a racist standpoint to non-Western philosophical traditions.

I am apt to suspect the negroes, and in general all the other species of men for there are four or ive different kinds to be naturally inferior to the whites. There scarcely ever was a civilized nation of any other complexion than white, nor even any individual eminent either in action or speculation.

No ingenious manufactures amongst them, no arts, no sciences. Such a uniform and constant difference could not happen, in so many countries and ages, if nature had not made an original distinction between these breeds of men. Not to mention our colonies, there are NEGROE slaves dispersed all over EUROPE, of whom none ever discovered any symptoms of ingenuity; though low people, without education, will start up amongst us, and distinguish themselves in every profession.

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In JAMAICA, indeed, they talk of one negroe as a man of parts and learning; but it is likely he is admired for slender accomplishments, like a parrot, who speaks a few words plainly. This distinction between himself as an individual and the universalityof his essential being, the African in the uniform, undeveloped onenessof his existence has not yet attained; so that the Knowledge of an absolute Being, an Other and a Higher than his individual self, is entirely wanting.

The Negro, as already observed, exhibits the natural man in his completely wild and untamed state. We must lay aside all thought of reverence and morality—all that we can call feeling—if we would rightly comprehend him; there is nothing harmonious with humanity to be found in this type of character…2 At this point we leave Africa, not to mention it again.

Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology

For it is no historical part of the World; it has no movement or developmentto exhibit. Historical movements in it—that is in its northern part—belong to the Asiatic or European World. Carthage displayed there an important transitionary phase of civilization; but, as a Phoenician colony, it belongs to Asia.

Egypt will be considered in reference to the passage of the human mind from its Eastern to its Western phase, but it does not belong to the African Spirit. Heidegger writes: So gelangt denn im Bereich dieser Zwiefalt zum Vorschein, was allein hier zu befragen bleibt: was ist das Seiende in seinem Sein?

Background on East Asian Philosophers, Philosophy & Religion

Previously, Aristotle entertaineda similar opinion to his teacher Plato, that the Persian Magians had precedenceover the Egyptians in philosophy; however, later in the Metaphysics, he began to assert that philosophy was essentially of Greek origin Aawani If these biases are unrecognized, peculiar exclusion of Africa from the discourse of philosophy constructed by tradition of historiography of Westernphilosophy will always be present Taiwo To burst the bubble of moral pretentiousness that had enveloped the Western intellectual universe since the period of Western triumphalism that followed the end of the Cold War, a two-way low in the passage of ideas between Eastern and Western thinkers must be created, challenging the prevailing Western ideas, such as democracy, human rights, freedom of the press, capitalism, etc.

Mahbubani What Mahbubani had done is not something new, before him, a Chinese modern intellectual Liang Qichao had relected on the corruptions of American democracy and capitalism in an academic manner Mishra Finally, an Iranian philosopher Seyyed Hossein Nasr born contended that Western philosophy has in fact been developing a misosophy or antisophy rather than philosophy in his masterpiece, Knowledge and the Sacred Nasr Beginning with the time of Hegel and Karl Marx and extending through Auguste Comte and Rudolf Carnap, Western philosophers had secularized and desacralized philosophy or wisdom — that is, the wisdomthey had for so long embraced in the era of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Plato, the Church Fathers, the Christian Neoplatonists throughout the era of Reformation philosophers to the one of Renaissance philosophers Nasr ; through this desacralization, modern philosophers have since developed misosophy the hatred of wisdom or antisophy the opposition to wisdom.

Western universities now have opened their doors for more intensive study of Eastern, Asian, or world philosophy. Park had inally revealed how racist Western philosophers were to non-Western philosophers,5 while some others, such as Will Durant , Martin Bernal , John M. Hobson , and David Weir had crossed the Eurocentric line by writing books unveiling the world contribution to the establishment of Western civilization.

First of all, in the The Encyclopedia of Philosophy edited by Paul Edwards , Western writers have shown their appreciation of the world philosophy by publishing articles of one Egyptian philosopher, one Iranian philosopher, one Pakistani philosopher, and four Chinese philosophers. In the same vein, A. Most of these sub-disciplines of philosophy in the Western academic world are increasingly giving some recognition to non-Western philosophies.

This implies that the philosophers or the ideas he did not include in his work — that is to say, the minor traditions of Asian philosophy — are deemed low in importance. This is very likely to conirm what Finngeir Hiorth had noted that Southeast Asia was a part of the world of lesser importance to Western professional philosophers due to weak tradition of philosophy in those countries Hiorth The tradition of Asian Philosophy has also ignored the minor traditions.

This is also the case in the works of World Philosophy, exempliied by the works of F. They only recognize the major traditions of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese philosophy; none of them recognize the importance of minor traditions. It does this in various ways: by its established departments of philosophy in its famous universities, its established professorship which uses its power to anoint certain traditions of Asian philosophy as being worthy to be studied, its standardized textbooks with its inclusions and exclusions, its alumni who perpetuate its misunderstandings, and the power and money which gives certain ways of thinking legitimacy.

But occasionally some minor tradition gains recognition. Sometimes a certain philosophy becomes popularized. This is in fact what happened to African philosophy, Korean philosophy, Tibetan philosophy, Melanesian philosophy, Polynesian philosophy, among others. All the mentioned philosophies had not been previously accepted by the Western academic world, yet, once the West realizes their philosophical importance, they became fashionable, and academics blindly accept their signiicance.

The Emergence of Regional Philosophies It is the elitist epistemic hegemony, conventionalizing the Westernview of Asian philosophy with only the major traditions of Indian, Chinese, and Japanese philosophies, that makes many philosophers from minor traditions upset. Rolando M. To him, it is high time for Filipino philosophy to be a speciic philosophy making its way through the thick cloud of Filipino academic unknowing.

Ferry Hidayat, by the same token, contended that the emergence of Indonesian philosophy as a particular philosophy was signiicant so as to discover phenomenon of thinking tradition in Indonesia and to foster a sense of pride amidst international academic competition Hidayat a Likewise, Pham Van Duc maintained that the appearance of Vietnamese philosophy as a separate philosophy was rich in signiicance because of four reasons: 1.

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It articulates differences between Vietnamese, Chinese, and Indian philosophies that seems prima facie to be similar; 2. It restores Vietnamese past philosophical thoughts; 3. It clariies their positive meaningsand values for the life of Vietnam and its people today; and 4.

EASTERN PHILOSOPHY - Sen no Rikyu

It preserves national cultural identity in the present context of globalization Duc All the Southeast Asians mentioned above ind it important to put their regional philosophies forward in order to positively contribute to the tradition of Asian philosophy. Their shared struggle is to make their minor traditions of philosophy equal to the major traditions that had highly developed before, to take up a respectful position, to achieve high status, and to play a prominent role in the advancement of the prevailing Asian philosophy.

A considerable advantage that can be gained with this regional philosophical enterprise is that it can contribute to the enrichment of Asian philosophy by popularizing regional philosophers that have not been popular or merely popularized through the medium of Western academia.

By establishing Filipino philosophy, for instance, Rolando M. The founding of Thai philosophy by Soraj Hongladarom perfectly enables him to set the stage for Thai philosophers like Sulak Sivaraksa and Phra Dhammapidok aka Prayudh Prayutto , and of course Soraj Hongladarom himself, to be well-known to the world Hongladarom If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site.

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