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NPM advocates aim to replace the academic, moral or disciplinary emphasis of traditional public administration with a professional focus. Some theorists advocate a "bright line" differentiation of the professional field from related academic disciplines like political science and sociology; it remains interdisciplinary in nature. One public administration scholar, Donald Kettl, argues that "public administration sits in a disciplinary backwater", because "for the last generation, scholars have sought to save or replace it with fields of study like implementation, public management, and formal bureaucratic theory".

Public administration theory is the domain in which discussions of the meaning and purpose of government, the role of bureaucracy in supporting democratic governments, budgets, governance, and public affairs takes place. In recent years, public administration theory has periodically connoted a heavy orientation toward critical theory and postmodern philosophical notions of government, governance, and power.

However, many public administration scholars support a classic definition of the term emphasizing constitutionality, public service, bureaucratic forms of organization, and hierarchical government. Comparative public administration or CPA is defined as the study of administrative systems in a comparative fashion or the study of public administration in other countries.

There have been several issues which have hampered the development of comparative public administration, including: the major differences between Western countries and developing countries; the lack of curriculum on this sub-field in public administration programs; and the lack of success in developing theoretical models which can be scientifically tested. Even though CPA is a weakly formed field as a whole, this sub-field of public administration is an attempt at cross-cultural analysis, a "quest for patterns and regularities of administrative action and behavior.

The process of comparison allows for more widely applicable policies to be tested in a variety of situations. Comparative public administration emerged during the post-World War II period in order to seek international developmental strategies which aided in the containment of communism during the Cold War.

Riggs , Heady [48] The developers of this field expanded on a general theory, a research agenda, and generalized "lessons learned". Riggs , Heady A prominent figure of Public Administration, Woodrow Wilson, commented on the study by saying, "Like principles of civil liberty are everywhere fostering like methods of government; and if comparative studies of the ways and means of government should enable us to offer suggestions which will practicably combine openness and vigor in the administration of such governments with ready docility to all serious, well-sustained public criticism, they will have approved themselves worthy to be ranked among the highest and most fruitful of the great departments of political study".

Comparative public administration lacks curriculum, which has prevented it from becoming a major field of study. This lack of understanding of the basic concepts that build this field's foundation has ultimately led to its lack of use. For example, William Waugh, a professor at Georgia State University has stated "Comparative studies are difficult because of the necessity to provide enough information on the sociopolitical context of national administrative structures and processes for readers to understand why there are differences and similarities.

Waugh argues that public administration requires an understanding of different administrative structures and a comparison of different public administration models. The literature to build this base of knowledge is scattered and often hard to obtain. The lack or ill-formed use of comparative public administration has been detrimental for many countries, including the United States. Fred Riggs a political scientist, states that "comparisons to the United States also can be problematic, because of the tendency of many American scholars to presume the American organizational structures and processes are models for other nations to emulate, which was a failing of early developmental administrative studies.

The development and better use comparative public administration could lead to better understanding.

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In , the National Security Strategy was used in the battle of hearts and minds. For a basic understanding of sociopolitical structure of a society or culture is a key component of comparative public administration. Despite all of its set backs there are examples of the application of well-formed Comparative Public Administration working in the world today. By examining patterns that emerge in international public sectors one can identify similarities and differences in many things including ideals of citizenship on the local level.

Although the United States failed use of Comparative Public Administration in the Middle East is noted, they did properly incorporate it domestically. Annual CO 2 emission attributed to electricity consumption in these U. These levels support the claim of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that energy use in buildings offer more potential for reducing carbon emission than any other single sector in the United States and abroad. The field of comparative public administration is often misunderstood for the definition itself is complex and requires layers of understanding.

The field will require many more years of collaborative research before it becomes a widely recognized academic study. Some public administration programs have similarities to business administration programs, in cases where the students from both the Master's in Public Administration MPA and Master's in Business Administration MBA programs take many of the same courses.

The MPA is related to similar graduate-level government studies programs including Master of Arts MA programs in public affairs, public policy , and political science. MPA degrees may be more likely to include program emphases on policy analysis techniques or other topical focuses such as the study of international affairs as opposed to MA degrees, which tend to focus on constitutional issues such as separation of powers , administrative law , contracting with government, problems of governance and power, and participatory democracy.

Some MPA degrees may be more oriented towards training students to undertake public service work tasks, whereas some MA programs may have a more academic, theoretical focus. Some universities offer their Masters in public administration as an MA degree e. Community programs may offer internships or continuing education credits. The DPA is an applied-research doctoral degree in the field of public administration, focusing on the practice of public administration more than on its theoretical aspects. The DPA requires coursework beyond the Masters level and a thesis, dissertation or other doctoral project.

Upon successful completion of the doctoral requirements, the title of "Doctor" is awarded and the post-nominals of D. Some universities use the Ph. The Ph. Individuals pursuing a Ph. Notable scholars of public administration have come from a range of fields. In the period before public administration existed as its own independent discipline, scholars contributing to the field came from economics, sociology, management, political science, administrative law, and, other related fields.

More recently, scholars from public administration and public policy have contributed important studies and theories. There are a number of international public administration organizations. Its biennial conference brings together ministers of public service, top public officials and leading scholars. Based in Brussels, Belgium, the IIAS is a worldwide platform providing a space for exchanges that promote knowledge and good practices to improve the organization and operation of public administration. The IIAS also aims to ensure that public agencies will be in a position to better respond to the current and future expectations and needs of society.

IASIA is an association of organizations and individuals whose activities and interests focus on public administration and management. The activities of its members include education and training of administrators and managers. It is the only worldwide scholarly association in the field of public management. Created in , this regional network of schools is unique in that it is the only organization to be composed of institutions from North and Latin America and the Caribbean working in public administration and policy analysis.

It has more than 49 members from top research schools in various countries throughout the hemisphere. Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration EROPA is a state-membership based organization, open to other organizations and individuals, headquartered in The Philippines with centres and membership organized around the Asia Pacific region. It has a number of centres in the region, and assists in networking experts with its members. These business approaches often aim to maximize efficiency and effectiveness and provide improved customer service. A contrast is drawn with the study of public administration, which emphasizes the social and cultural drivers of government that many contend e.

Allison and Charles Goodsell makes it different from the private sector. Comparative public management, through government performance auditing , examines the efficiency and effectiveness of two or more governments.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the discipline. For the journal, see Public Administration journal. Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy.

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Political systems. Academic disciplines. Political science political scientists. International relations theory. Public administration. Bureaucracy street-level Adhocracy. Public policy doctrine Domestic and foreign policy Civil society Public interest. Organs of government. Separation of powers Legislature Executive Judiciary Election commission. Related topics. Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Political psychology Biology and political orientation Political organisations Foreign electoral intervention.

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  7. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources.

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    Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of notable public administration scholars. Retrieved Eds Jack Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreth, and Gerard J.

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    Public Administration: An Action Orientation. The Politics of the Administrative Process. Washington D. McKinney and Lawrence C. Public Administration: Balancing Power and Accountability. Committee of Experts on Public Administration. Definition of basic concepts and terminologies in governance and public administration. June, Classics of Public Administration.

    Wadsworth: Boston. Clapp attributed part of this definition to Charles Beard. Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved March 13, Policy analysis and evaluation research after twenty years. Retrieved October 25, One of the oldest examples of a merit-based civil service system existed' in the imperial bureaucracy of China.

    Tan, Chung; Geng, Yinzheng India and China: twenty centuries of civilization interaction and vibrations.

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    University of Michigan Press. China not only produced the world's first "bureaucracy", but also the world's first "meritocracy" Konner, Melvin Unsettled: an anthropology of the Jews. Viking Compass. China is the world's oldest meritocracy Tucker, Mary Evelyn Ecology and the Environment: Perspectives from the Humanities : Lynn, Christopher Pollitt p. Creel, p. Creel —6 Herrlee G. Paul R.

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    Goldin, p. AM Gov McGraw Hill: New York. Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications. Principles of Scientific Management. Archived from the original on May—June Public Administration Review. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory.

    Public administration and disability community services administration in the US. Washington DC. International Journal of Public Administration. The field of public administration knows many concepts. By focusing on one such concept, this research shows how definitions can be deceptive Spring Perspectives on Political Science.

    Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration. Retrieved 17 April Social sciences. Outline History Index. Anthropology archaeology cultural linguistics social Economics microeconomics macroeconomics econometrics mathematical Geography human integrative History cultural economic military political social Law jurisprudence legal history legal systems public law private law Political science international relations comparative theory public policy Psychology abnormal cognitive developmental personality social Sociology criminology demography internet rural urban. Administration business public Anthrozoology Area studies Business studies Cognitive science Communication studies Community studies Cultural studies Development studies Education Environmental social science studies Food studies Gender studies Global studies History of technology Human ecology Information science International studies Linguistics Media studies Philosophy of science economics history psychology social science Planning land use regional urban Political ecology Political economy Public health Regional science Science and technology studies Science studies historical Social work Vegan studies.

    List of social science journals. Humanities Geisteswissenschaft Human science. Category Commons Portal Wikiversity. Public services. Municipalization Nationalization Progressive tax. Thirty-three percent of the faculty are fellows in the prestigious National Academy of Public Administration. MPA students have the opportunity to enter a community of scholars and practitioners who share a deep commitment to effective teaching and rigorous research on public administration. The MPA degree is the recognized graduate degree for professionals in public service. While there are many similarities between pursuing an MPA and an MBA, there are key differences between the two degrees.

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    A video project called, "Ask My Why I Care" was created to help inform us about what people do in public service. See the videos here. Perhaps you will connect with one of the stories.